Tyranny Over the Mind: Constraining the Egocentric ‘I the Knower’ Approach in Favor of Participation

Let’s go back and look at the priceless historical value of what is being quietly taken away. Then I will show more of the ways this stealth robbery is occurring through K-12 education. How it both hides under legal mandates most are unaware of and in known initiatives that have unappreciated aspects. You know how I explain in my book and on this blog that Radical Ed Reform is like a giant jigsaw puzzle where the pieces fit so the gears can then engage as designed? Turns out that aspect has a name no one bothered to tell us about. “Plug-and-Play” is the new phrase I stumbled across. We may be the players on the proverbial chessboard of this game we are funding, but no one intends to let us plan our own moves anymore.

The book Property and Freedom: The Story of How Through the Centuries Private Ownership has Promoted Liberty and the Rule of Law reminds us that when governments at all levels decide to “seek not just freedom but opportunity…not just equality as a right and a theory but equality as a fact and as a result,” those aims of social equality require actual coercion. Lack of consent is not an option. Professor Pipes, after quoting President Johnson, points out that “once the elimination of poverty becomes a state objective, the state is bound to treat property not as a fundamental right, which it is its supreme obligation to protect, but [my emphasis] as an obstacle to social justice.”

What I want to add is if that is true of physical things, property in the form of personal knowledge, values, attributes, and beliefs is even more at risk as an obstacle. Those personal characteristics of each of us, so targeted now through a Whole Child social and emotional learning emphasis, are precisely what can recognize the loss of what is being taken away. Those are the qualities that allow an individual to stand before a stampeding herd and try to turn it in time. Those are also forms of personal property in the sense recognized by Pipes when he wrote:

“The right to property in and of itself does not guarantee civil rights and liberties. But historically speaking, it has been the single most effective device for ensuring both, because it creates an autonomous sphere, in which by mutual consent, neither the state or society can encroach; by drawing a line between the public and the private, it makes the owner co-sovereign, as it were.”

Since I am neither “oblivious to the consequences” of what these reforms in K-12 education are actually intended to transform, nor as yet unable to “even speak my mind” on the effects of “subordinating individual rights to group rights,” here are some specifics that abrogate any inkling of that personal sovereignty. If you took your solace from the vision of the last post  from a belief that that particular view of the future would not happen, I am guessing KnowledgeWorks failed to send you a copy of the blueprint it created for remaking the traditional high school. Let me fix that omission. http://www.knowledgeworks.org/sites/default/files/High%20School%20Race%20to%20the%20Top.pdf

Does anyone have a personally autonomous sphere when governments decide to partner with the “local workforce system” to prescribe what students are now to know and be able to do? All students are to achieve the stipulated “competencies and learning objectives.” If that sounds innocent enough, with only some overtones of social engineering, how about a requirement that the “knowledge and skills” be suitable for being “applied to complex situations regardless of content area.” That’s sounding quite preprogrammed isn’t it? How about learning objectives that “provide the specific tasks a student must complete to demonstrate proficiency.” Should governments be dictating that the “days of direct instruction are numbered,” while stipulating a requirement for “engaged learning that ignites students’ intrinsic motivation”?

That will require a great deal of personal probing, won’t it? Hard to respect the integrity of the person though in a blueprint that actually has an Element 3 calling for “public-private partnerships” with community organizations and businesses. Whose needs will be met in creating “customized learning pathways for all students”? Pathways for those of us who avoid the woods at all costs and hate looking at maps basically decide where we may tread without being arrested or maybe stepping on a snake. Whose interests are determining these Pathways and how do students get to move beyond the stipulated “essential skills such as collaboration, initiative, global awareness, creativity, critical thinking, and perseverance”?

The federal government’s partner in many of these workforce readiness visions for K-12 education is an entity called Jobs for the Future. They have created an initiative that is also probably off your radar called Students at the Center. It guides the actual classroom implementation while staying hidden to the typical parent, school board member, or taxpayer. An excellent strategy for getting your way without messy controversy. Tracking through those footnotes though pulled up this vision of education in 2020 where education globally now expects less disabling curricula than the historic emphasis on print. http://aim.cast.org/w/resources/indira/text/2020LearningLandscape.pdf;jsessionid=2418E9C0A6ADC89C46B5764CE1F45E0D

Yes, you did read that right since apparently we belong to the last generation that need worry about reading instead of “multimedia experiences” we are immersed in. A print emphasis in school is to be seen as a matter of injustice. Since I covered why print is so liberating to the human mind in Chapter 2: “The Danger of the Fluent Reader”, I will simply refer blog readers there. Please also note that this vision where by 2020, “the basic platform for education is no longer print media” is being pushed by the same group that forced the pernicious Universal Design For Learning into the Common Core in the first place (see Chapter 7 on that). The repeated insistence now in education globally to proclaim the Death of the Gutenberg Era is nothing more than an attempt to constrain the independence of the human mind when it can access books and other information without restraint.

Has anyone noticed an accelerating push around IB programs? Did you know that when people like Linda Darling-Hammond describe their dream type of assessment for the future IB is the one they point to? Did you know IB has revised its required Theory of Knowledge course for its Diploma Programme? It has already been rolled out with the first schedules assessment in 2015.The IBO Guidelines added religion as a New Area of Knowledge since Religious Knowledge Systems have “a major impact on how they understand the world, permeating their thinking and influencing their understanding of other AOKs ..for many, religion provides a backdrop to all the other knowledge they have.”

I do believe that new found reverence for religious belief only extends to certain beliefs since the New TOK officially wants to cross out the following:

* Unsustainable absolutist conception of knowledge

*Black and white thinking: no perspectives (objectivism) or just perspectives (subjectivism)

*Egocentric, “I the knower” approach

* Naked, monolithic, quantitative Ways of Knowing

That last one certainly explains all the fascination for non-linear problem-solving based on instinct instead of logic or known algorithms. As I explained in Chapter 4 of my book “The Danger of the Analytical Thinker”, none of these ‘reforms’ is really about a better way to teach a subject. It’s always a means to change the student at a psychological level. It also tries to train the student in a reverence for the collective and shared knowledge instead of personal knowledge.

Speaking of cronyistic public-private partnerships and a shared knowledge push, others have pointed out that on November 17, 2004 Bill Gates personally signed a Cooperation Agreement between UNESCO and Microsoft. My chief concern was laid out in Appendix 3 on creating “communities of practice” and students becoming merely “a participant of a community,” instead of the autonomous individuals they have historically been in the Western tradition of the always related individualism, property, and freedom. Requiring “shared practice” in education and the classroom is not free. Neither is having UNESCO or Microsoft or Mr Gates developing a required “perspective on knowing and learning that informs efforts to create learning systems in various sectors and at various levels of scale, from local communities, to single organizations, partnerships, cities, regions, and the entire world.”

Well, that’s an ambitious vision of shared knowledge. Rather authoritarian too. Will you or your children adapt well to a sense of ’empowerment’ no longer coming from what you can do on your own or who you choose to work with? Instead, CoPs “facilitate ’empowerment’ through their members’ ability to participate in a community and allow the participants to drive the community.” There’s apparently no scheduled Opt Out if we simply want to escape being a required participant in the community or a ‘mere’ member of society.

Come on Robin, you say, quit sounding like you’d prefer the option of being a hermit. Well, OK, let’s look quickly at what the cited creator of these CoPs has in mind in education. No need to speculate    http://wenger-trayner.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/09-10-27-CoPs-and-systems-v2.01.pdf Wenger wants to see the student as a “social participant, as a meaning-making entity for whom the social world is a resource for constituting an identity.”

Oh. Good. Grief. First Prescribed Pathways and now Preformed Molds for fostering a Desired Identity in order to “organize our participation.”

And people keep wondering why the actual focus is so psychological.

See where requiring Equity is taking us?


36 thoughts on “Tyranny Over the Mind: Constraining the Egocentric ‘I the Knower’ Approach in Favor of Participation

  1. Check out the ” participatory democracy” at the UN. Haha.
    Gates et al are happy to force innocent unknowing African women to take old expired depro provera vaccines causing all kinds of tragic side effects. IPP funded also by US taxpayers. Deciding who should not procreate. On the other hand using mind arson on American children to accomplish same goal.
    Denmark a model for mind arson manipulism where citizens self administer depro and declare their utter happiness.


  2. Robin-

    My husband had to pour me an adult beverage as I read over that KW’s blueprint for our future. Three sips later and I’m still shaking.

    Help me with this…. As this Teaching and Learning, centralized control from the top ideal is established globally and as brain dead and complacent graduates to either career or college approach middle age who will be left to run these glorious systems much less do the psychoanalytic research( or Russian translations! ) to continue to keep the serfs in their place once the original self appointed demi godlike planners have gone to meet their systems maker?

    Will there be secret, special schools where academic content is still communicated via verboten direct instruction. Will there be a stash of secret texts for the anointed few?

    Two anecdotal illustrations;

    #1. Friend In San Diego just told me that she went to the library to help her son find some works by Poe. The computer database search said there was nothing in the library on Poe or by Poe. Nothing. She found her son post search in an aisle reading a book by David Sedaris and two rows away were stacks of books about and by Poe. My guess is that they are going to be recycled soon but clearing them from the database makes their going missing less blatant. Gutenburg is so yesterday.

    #2. Regarding the Purpose of Education as vocational training for everyone; I have made comments in the past about conversations I remember from the 1980’s where when I asked visiting Soviet high school students to my school what they studied in their school, to a person each would answer ” I study to be Engineer!” The planners Career and College ready insistence on STEM curriculum seems to me to be a variation on the Orwellian Engineer Credential.

    I recently met a lovely women who has immigrated here from Russia to be with her husband. She is 30 and has been here since she was 25. Back in Russia she has a16 year old and a 6 years old. She is earning a living here presently by cleaning houses although she did tell me that in Russia she worked as a Dentist. Her english is quite good. So I cannot help but wonder what “Dentist” in Russia actually means much like the ubiquitous “engineer”?

    • KW announced in August, just shortly after I wrote that original post on the Broad winning Super saying the purpose of CC was to reform the nature of high school, that they were spinning off their New Tech Network and High Tech High sub. That shift was final as of October 1 so if you did not know of the previous link, you would not know that the New Tech Network was a sub at the time of this document.

      Because High Tech High and NTN are part of the League of Innovative Schools this ties into Digital Promise.

      As I have noted KW is financed by the Gates, Carnegie, and Hewlett Foundations and Clinton Education Secretary Richard Riley is on their Board. Ties then to GELP, the Innovation Lab Network states and Next Generation Learning and Competency Based Instruction in addition to those Institute for the Future visions from the previous post.

      I am actually not looking for provocative material. This is quite firmly intended to come in under the banner of the Common Core even though it has little to do with the sales pitch. That report mentions the local Workforce Boards which now have more power and money and links to now required State Boards under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.

      I am not particularly wanting to Plug-and-Play, but thankfully we are still able to Plug, Perceive Accurately, and Discuss.

  3. Sorry …but ….WHAT??????

    “Learning is not just acquiring skills and information; it is becoming a certain ( KIND OF???) person—a knower in a context where what it means to know is negotiated with respect to the regime of competence of a community.” from Wenger-Trayner

    “REGIME…of competence of a community. ” Determined of course by some other REGIME.

    There clearly does exist such a thing as parallel universes.

    • That’s why it matters so much that it is UNESCO and Bill Gates and Microsoft saying that there is this vision of communities of practice and that’s simply what the world will evolve into. No, it won’t but a great deal of intellectual seed corn is being thrown into an abyss chasing after this vision of power. These people are Backward Mapping from their impossible social vision to an economy that they can try to plan and direct to the people who will be complaint with that vision. Then they spin ed theories that try to put it all in place.

      Remember the accreditors answer to UNESCO. This is the vision for the classroom. It is the vision for the workplace.

      Etienne Wenger’s books have come yesterday and today. His Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity came out in 1998. I bought it used, but my copy turns out to be part of the 18th Printing in 2008. It turns out to have been issued as part of a collection that included James Wertsch, the Vygotsky expert I cite to in my book as well as Michael Cole, the American prof known for CHAT-Cultural Historical Activity Theory.

      I read the Intro before writing this post to make sure it fit with there I thought this post should go. So far Wenger has not used the M word, but he says that this social theory of learning is integral with theories of social structure. Well, that is Marxism and systems theory, but if you look at the back of the book in the bibliography, they are all famous and acknowledged Marxists, including Uncle Karl himself. No teacher would know that though.

      Keep sipping. I am afraid you haven’t noticed yet that the visionary reading conference imagined for 2020 is set in Beijing. I suppose there was an assumption that would be center of global influence by then.

    • Yes instead of new engineers, or lawyers, or doctors, who know the fundamentals and still have to get used to professional culture and behavior during early working years, we’ll get people who are good at acting like them: right clothes, right jargon, right tics, everything but the theoretical foundation.

      (I’ve interviewed people like this, they usually know how to make it all look impressive on a resume. I aim to blow them up in interviews and consider it my best contribution to the hiring effort. It’s a disaster when such people are hired.)

      And then we’ll require corporations to hire them. Great.

      • Based on Diversity Quotas and Equity in Credential Granting. You should read the nonsense coming out of the Civil Right division of Justice and Education.

        Or the statements about how it’s enough if a computer like Watson “knows things.”

  4. This CC discussion of the future CC glories of vocational training and academic results reminds of the phrase “socialist realism” or perhaps a similar phrase. I am not sure if I am using the correct phrase. It took time for books to be published yet the Soviet authors had to write in the present. So, they were told to write about the future as though it were real, as the projected results (e.g. of the next five year plan) were well known and scientifically valid and inevitable.

    I do not believe that the CC has been shown to help anyone learn a trade or be employable or learn math or science for the so called STEM careers. The CC folks just assume this as fact.

    Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other socialist countries. Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style having as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a broader type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern. Unlike social realism, socialist realism often glorifies the roles of the meek and working class and the struggle for its emancipation.

    Socialist realism
    The ‘true depiction of reality in its revolutionary development’ meant that literature and art were to serve as glorifying illustrations of the CPSU’s policies, and to portray what was hoped for in such a way that it seemed real.

    • Anon-just imagine if they could have put their vision into virtual reality gaming, introduce it to the classroom, have it collect data on students from an unconscious level, and then have the school district declare that the gaming is now the ‘test’.

      • The most dangerous thing is that the students are rated by the test. Those that conform best and fastest will be the winners. Those that hold back or refuse to cooperate will be the slow learners requiring remedial effort. To me, the scariest thing is the SAT announcing they are changing the test to conform to CC.

        • Mike- the meaning of that alignment is something I have been documenting. Turning it into English with documentable consequences is a current playpen. I see it, but then I have so much.

          I will tell this story. Loosely, the SAT under coleman’s reign appears to me to be a matter of how we see the world if the question asked is CUN–complex, unknown, nonroutine.

          Reemember agin that I have laid out the changes in the colleges too to reflect a new vision of “college ready.”

          • New York State ELA tests may be a dry run for something like this. They say they are required for evaluating teachers and schools, not students, so presumably students have no basis to complain about them. (These are the tests that there’s this big “opt out” movement against, discussed recently by Robin.)

            My child who reads years above grade level usually gets 3/4 (proficient but not distinguished) on this test.

            A friend’s child, who tested on Woodcock-Johnson as two years below her grade level, also got 3/4 when she took the test in third grade (i.e. W-J evaluated her as 1st grade reading level.)

            It’s not a straight apples-to-apples comparison only because our children are in different grades, so they did not take the identical tests. But it’s still rather strange.

          • Proficiency is a notch above Competent on Flyv’s Social Science Ladder of Behavior but a step below Use of Concepts at an Instinctual Level like an Expert. I suspect the Proficient comes from reading well so vocabulary is strong, but the Axemaker logical mind is impeding the willingness to rely on insight and instinct. Flyv also wrote about the Arational Mind. That’s not the mind your child or your friend’s child has, thank goodness.

            I said IB was LDH’s dream assessment. This is also in the same category on her chart. http://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/sdu_newyork2013.pdf

            Randi Weingarten’s idea of a great assessment and thus fit fir a new kind of Accountability if you remember that video and her intro of Wade Henderson from this summer.

            http://performanceassessment.org/ is the official site and yes they also want to push away from testing. This, by the way, was originally created as part of Ted Sizer’s Coalition of Essential Schools.

            We are both up early aren’t we? Time for a nice cup of China Rose tea. Did you know I get it sent from a little shop, McNulty’s, in Greenwich Village? I found it online when Teavana dropped Lapsang Souchong. When I was with my family in NYC this summer, we found the actual shop.

          • Regrettably perhaps, or indicative of my family’s schedule, I was up late not early. Though I had snoozed thru a couple NBA games on the sofa, so I was half done sleeping.

            I’m an hour out into the burbs in Westchester County, so you’ve been in Greenwich Village more recently than I. My favorite drink is Trader Joe’s Irish Breakfast tea, with milk. English style, not that I’m English, but I like it. I have benefitted from diversity. Places are not all the same, so I can pick a bit here and a bit there. I would probably not be considered culturally competent though!

            Actually my really favorite drink is espresso, but I can’t drink too much of it.

            Speaking of Westchester County, I was watching our public TV station and saw this Board of Ed. meeting from one of our districts. The Super is confessing all the stuff you’ve been writing about the agenda. He gives a long speech starting at about 11:30 and then he gets destroyed by some audience comments after he finally shuts up at 1:30:00 (i.e. he spoke for 80 minutes straight)


            I’ve read that the backstory here is the Super intended (pun also intended 🙂 to have this Equity meeting and informed the local town political leaders, on District stationery, but did not inform (let alone get approval from) the school board! One of the town politicians tipped off some regular people in their town, who in turn informed the school board, who then complained and got the meeting stopped.

          • From the AFT link:

            “Our initial mission and responsibility was to get kids
            ready for college,” says Phyllis Tashlik, director of the
            consortium’s Center for Inquiry. “Years ago, nobody
            was talking about that. All they were talking about was
            passing Regents exams and getting graduation rates
            up. Whether kids were really learning or not was not
            the focus. The consortium’s focus has always been on
            teaching and learning, preparing to get our kids into
            college and to stay in college.”

            What kind of nonsense is this? Passing Regents exams is not related to learning? Not related to being able to do college level work? It’s been a gold standard of high school education for 100 years, less so recently as the political winds have blown around the exams, but still meaningful.

            Fortunately the NY Performance Standards Consortium is basically 28 or so schools in NYC serving populations who aren’t doing very well. Can’t pass the assessments? Get some different assessments! So far I don’t see any interest in their stuff out here in the burbs. (knocking on every wooden object I can find …)

  5. Are there any colleges that are actively avoiding this push from below? I suppose any colleges that would not take the high scorers (knowing just what their scores represented) simply wouldn’t receive accreditation. Do we steer our kids away from college? Would they stand a chance at “success” without it? Do we have to try to teach them the truth AND how to play the game to survive?

    • Here’s what I tell parents. The more famous the school, the more likely it is to now be largely about shifting worldviews via coursework. Any college you are seriously looking at should have a course catalog you can look through. My alma mater switching from a History Department and Religion to Historical Thought and Religious Perspectives was a serious clue long before the new Pres started hyping transdisciplinary.

      Talking to the kids in college who were home over the summer and had picked their choice in part to still get an old-fashioned liberal arts style ed was that they could now see shifts since they started.

      I think many people would do better to learn a trade. Hard to outsource that. Being another communications or psych major is not what the world needs.

      Other people may have opinions to contribute. I know some of their stories from offline discussions, but they are not mine to tell.

      I have said it before and I will reiterate–no one can really take down the mind created by being a fluent reader who actively reads growing up. It’s as close to a magical elixir as we get.

    • I agree with the fundamental power and magic of reading, and, wanted to share that Hillsdale College (www.hillsdale.edu) appears to be acutely aware of the mind-bending going on through the Common Core and has chosen to lift the classical curriculum out of the rubble. I know nothing about the college itself but reading through their Core Curriculum (no, not that Core) is a refreshing experience. One of their professors, Terrence Moore, lets loose on the Common Core on this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xCoOv_DwaAk

    • MIT is now using mixed-ability groupings in their freshman physics courses, and team projects using computer simulation. The professor now in charge of it says that they learn much more physics this way.

      But do they learn to think? Do they ever learn to quiet the noise in their heads and solve a problem on their own?

      • David-if you look at that UN Data report I put up yesterday, you will see that beyond Microsoft’s involvement, MIT prof Alex “Sandy” Pentland is also part of the Commission. Remember I wrote about him and the FuturICT vision?

      • But they’re not supposed to learn on their own. Group learning is a must because you need to listen to everyone’s ideas to get the best solution. Independent analysis provides an incomplete answer, not adequately addressing social issues.

  6. Soon it will seem that you really don’t have to know anything.

    I am wondering if I really want this in my house. (Sorry for the product plug, it’s not really a plug though.)

    It sits in your room, you ask it a question, immediately it goes to the internet and gets you an answer. It costs $100 and plugs into your wall socket.

    My concerns are (1) I don’t want my kids to think they don’t need to know anything, and of course (2) how do I know it’s not piping our conversations at home back to a listener on the internet.

    • In this single paper we have references to LDH, Scope & Scale, Dweck, Marc Tucker, SCANS, Goodlad and Bloom. wow. I would say Conley is fully aware and a willing participant. Not that we did not know this already. Sure does look like the opt out is a push toward this direction. You nailed it.

      • Did you see this on building up the innate human capacity for spirituality but making it a matter of Post-religion? http://www.rsablogs.org.uk/2014/socialbrain/spirituality-inbuilt/

        Needs to be non-ideological. Foster the sense of interdependence.

        Yes because there’s no ideology in this education vision. Just because it replicates Uncle Karl’s vision coupled to Uncle Vladimer’s according to someone who should know–Leontiev, down to his footnoting the references. That’s what I worked on yesterday and then I saw the applicability to the Digital Learning/League of Innovative Schools vision and that’s what I worked on today.

        It always comes back to the same place because this is all ultimately a scheme at invisibly imposing subjugation at the level of the human mind. Plus the emotions get tossed in to make the transformation binding on future likely behavior.

        Maybe I should quit thinking for the day and see what’s on TV.

        • 21st century. Everythings got to change. Its the age of Aquarius, the astral convergence. I watched as that 21st century propaganda mantra began to be attached to everything. Like the slogans used to sell news drama.
          Anyway, the futuring activities done in the eighties by new agers to corporations, institutions and school leaders combining the UnESCO robert muller stuff using of course the familiar groupthink delphi methods. Setting the stage for today.
          It has been a continuous chain of deception. So that link above illustrates the post religion religion. The religion of group community as religion. The new age one world religion of UNESCO. UNESCO and GATES. Fascilitating all the research and policy and front groups and materials and propaganda and implementation most paid for with our tax dollars too.
          If the money, the OPM could be stopped then we have a chance. It really is similar to the scandinavian model. Why charlotte danielson and many get tingles up their leg when comparing US to say Finland.
          Post religion, corporat socialist supressed and controlled country.
          Now i need adult Beverage.

        • If your football teams were doing as poorly as our Jets and Giants, you’d be back at the blog. Or, hopefully not, the adult beverages.

          I wanted to watch Dallas play Jacksonville in London this morning but for some reasons NFL regulations have that blacked out in the whole NYC area.

      • LL-I find it interesting that the Gates Foundation and Rand chose the MAP–Measures of Academic Progress from Portland to measure achievement in their personalized learning vision. http://collegeready.gatesfoundation.org/sites/default/files/Early%20Progress%20Interim%20Report%20on%20Personalized%20Learning%20-%20Full%20Report.pdf

        It also fits with our discussion that Oregon does not have charters because Oregon is already pushing all the change the child, Whole Child, SEL, digital approaches that charters are emphasizing in their language of what performance they emphasize.

          • That was fascinating. A significant amount of what the combo of K-12 education in this vision and computer technology can do to profile the human mind and how it works and what behaviors it generates and why are in Russian. Many UNESCO docs are and their committee members have complained on the record. I have a hard time with what is in English like Nina Talyzina explaining Galperin or what we pulled up with that obuchenie/teaching and learning epiphany.

    • Would I be guilty of having a lousy sense of humor, if I said I find this one simply funny?


      The idea is that black and hispanic students will learn math better or at least pay attention if the lesson contains a grievance topic. But they note that such students later lose interest or go back to bad performance when normal math lessons resume.

      The hypothesis that no actual math was learned in the “social justice math” or “ethomathematics” lessons is not mentioned, but it would be my prime candidate.

      I can’t particularly blame people of color for this nonsense though. It’s mostly white people getting paid to push this stuff.

  7. From the Wenger link at the end:

    “Artifacts without participation do not carry their own
    meaning …”

    So the individual contribution is necessarily meaningless? What total nonsense. All those individual Nobel prizes, at any rate those for work that was largely done alone, are for meaningless stuff, by this definition.

    Was the airplane only meaningful because there were two Wright brothers who participated together in its development?

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